Communication has been variously defined as the passing of information, the exchange of ideas, or the process of establishing a commonness or one-ness of thought between a sender and a receiver.
A basic model of communication
A basic model of communication model is as follows:
Source of encoding
The sender or source of a communication is the person or organization that has information to share with another person or group of people.
The communication process begins when the source selects words, symbols, pictures, and the like, to represent the message that will be delivered to the receivers. This process is known as encoding, involves putting thoughts, ideas, or information into a symbolic form .
The encoding process leads to development of a message that contains the information or meaning the source hopes to convey. The message may be verbal or nonverbal, oral or written, or symbolic.
The channel is the method by which the communications travels from the source or sender to the receiver.
At the broadest level, channel of communication are of two types, personal and nonpersona.
Personal channels of communication are direct interpersonal (face to face) contact with target individuals or groups
Nonpersoanl channel of communication are those that carry a message without interpersonal contact between sender and receiver.
The receiver is the persons with whom the sender shares thoughts or information. Generally, receivers are the consumers in the target market or audience who read, hear, and or see the marketers message and decode it.
Decoding is the process of transforming the senders message back into thought.
Throughout the communication process, the message is subject to extraneous factors that can distort or interfere with its reception. This unplanned distortion or interference is known as noise.
The receivers set of reactions after seeing, hearing, or reading the message is known as a response.
Marketers are very interested in feedback, that part of the receivers response that is communicated back to the sender.
Extensive research has been conducted on how the structure of a persuasive message can influence its effectiveness. Message structure includes:
Order of presentation
Conclusion of drawing
Verbal versus visual messages
Several common types of message appeals are as follows:
Comparative advertising is the practice of both directly or indirectly naming competitors in an ad and comparing one or more specific attributes.
Fear is an emotional response to a threat that expenses, or at least implies, some sort of danger.
Humorous ads are often the best known and best remembered of all advertising messages.
The advertising appeal refers to the approach used to attract the attention of consumers and to influence their feelings toward the product, service, or cause.
An advertising appeal can also be viewed as something that moves people, speaks to their wants or needs, and executes their interest.
The creative execution style is the way a particular appeal is turned into an advertising message presented to the consumer.
Types of Advertising appeals
Hundreds of different appeals can be used as the basis for advertising messages. At the broadest level, these approaches are generally broken into two categories:
Informational or rational appeals
Informational or rational appeals focus on the consumer‘s practical, functional, or utilitarian need for the product or service and emphasize features of a product or service and the benefits or reasons for owning or using a particular brand. The content of this message emphasizes facts, learning, and the logic of persuasion.
Rational based appeals tend to be informative, and advertisers using them generally attempt to convince consumers that their product or services has a particular attributes or provides a specific benefit that satisfies their needs.
Many rational motives can be used as the basis for advertising appeals, including comfort, convenience, economy, health, and sensory benefits such as touch, taste, and smell.
Other rational motives or purchase criteria commonly used in advertising include quality, dependability, durability, efficiency, efficacy, and performance.
Weilbacher identified several types advertising appeals that fail under the category of rational approaches-
Favorable price appeals
Product or service popularity appeals
Emotional appeals relate to the consumers social and psychological needs for purchasing a product or service .many consumers motive for their purchase decisions are emotional, and their feelings about a brand can be more important than knowledge of its features or attributes.
Bases for emotional appeals
Personal states or feelings
The form of emotional appeals can be as follows:
A transformational ad is defined as "one which associates the experience of using (consuming) the advertised brand with a unique set of psychological characteristics.
Transformational ads create feelings, image, meanings, and beliefs about the product or service that may be activated when consumers use it.
A creative execution is the way an advertising appeal is presented. While it is obviously important for an ad to have a meaningful appeal or message to communicate to the consumer, the manner in which the ad is executed is also important.
An advertising message can be presented or executed in numerous ways:
Straight sell or factual message
Testimonial slice of life
Teaser or mystery ads
Advertisers introducing a new product often use teaser advertising, which is designed to build curiosity, interest, and excitement about a product or brand by talking about it but not actually showing it.
It is used by marketers to draw attention to upcoming advertising campaigns and generate interest and publicity for them.